In a moving bed-biofilm reactor (MBBR), the fluidization efficiency, immobilization of microbial cells, and treatment efficiency are directly influenced by the shape and pores of biofilm carriers. Moreover, the efficacy of bioremediation mainly depends on their interaction interface with microbes and substrate. This review aims to comprehend the role of different carrier properties on bioremediation productivity, such as material shapes, pores, and surface area. A porous biofilm carrier with surface ridges containing spherical pores sizes > 1 mm can be ideal for maximum efficacy. It provides diverse environments for cell cultures, develops uneven biofilms, and retains various cell sizes and biomass. Moreover, the thickness of biofilm and controlled scaling shows a significant impact on MBBR performance. Therefore, the effect of these parameters in MBBR is discussed detailed in this review, through which existing literature and technical strategies that focus on the surface area as the primary factor can be critically assessed.
Schematic diagram of the genetic polymorphisms of manganese superoxide dismutase gene could modify the risk of oxidative stress and early kidney injury in humans.